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Le membre greffé, l’eau et les herbes guérisseuses Du dioscurisme indo-européen aux saints jumeaux À propos de Raven et Rasyphe

Gricourt, Daniel ; Hollard, Dominique

Editeur : Nouvelle mythologie comparée - 4

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A recent study denies any dioscuric nature to the saints Raven and Rasyphe, reputed to have been martyred in the 5th century in Macé (Calvados). In addition, the Norman hermits are considered in another study as the equivalent, within the Irish tradition, of the two therapist brothers Miach and Oirmiach, sons of the god-doctor Diancecht and with whom they intoned magical incantations around the spring of Health. This interceltic connection is not only relevant and well-founded, but also takes on its full dimension within the framework of Indo-European comparativism. Indeed, the myth of Núada and his severed arm, who, after receiving a silver prosthesis placed by Diancecht, had a human arm successfully grafted thanks to the use of herbs by Miach, can be compared, on the one hand, with that of the iron leg granted to Viśpálā by the twin gods Aśvin of the Vedic religion, and on the other hand, with the healing by plants given by Amərətāt, one of the geminated abstract entities of mazdean Iran, the other one, named Haurvatāt, being associated with the waters. In addition, the heirs of the Greco-Roman Dioscuri Kastôr/Castor and Poludeukès/ Pollux, represented by the famous Christian twin brothers Cosmas and Damian, patrons of doctors and surgeons (among others), were renowned among many miracles for having transplanted on a man with a gangrenous leg, a black-coloured one taken from the corpse of a Moor, to whom, in reverse, they attached the limb of the patient. In the light of these various related instances, there is no doubt that Rasyphe, succumbing after all his limbs had been cut off, forms a dioscuric couple with Raven – who resurrected him and whose right arm was amputated – near the fountain where they survived by eating medicinal herbs. This couple, in all likelihood, taking into account the continental context, is similar to the type of Celtic divine Twins «Lugian» and «Cernunnian» that we have been studying for nearly fifteen years. Keywords : Ravennus and Rasyphus, Aśvin, Miach and Oirmiach, Cosmas and Damian, Graft of a limb, Indo-European medicine.

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